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English Translatet - Save Venice - save the Mediterranean Sea - bye, bye Venice, ciao..........4.11.2006 copyright - english translated til 28.5.2007 - the last information look for german translating - deadline 8.07.2007
UNO Generalsekritär Ban Ki- moon meeting im europäisches Forum in Alpbach - August 2009 -
Gernot Langes Swarovski
EINER KÜHNEN IDEE ZUM GELEIT
Schon der Name Prachensky bürgt für ungewöhnliche Kreativität, kühne Freiheit der Gedanken, künstlerisch-architektonische Kom-promisslosigkeit und in ferne Zukunft weisende Perspektiven. Verspielte Illusionen ohne Realisierungsanspruch sind es aber nicht, die Michael Prachensky's Gedanken in seinem jüngsten Projekt eines "Neuen Atlantis" beflügeln. Ausgehend von der unleugbaren Tendenz einer langfristigen Klimaerwärmung und der damit verbundenen Gefahr eines Anstiegs des Wasserspiegels des Mittelmeeres, was den Untergang Venedigs bedeuten müsste, kreisen Michael Prachensky's Überlegungen nicht nur um die tech-nischen Herausforderungen beim Bau von Dämmen, Brücken oder Schleusen, sondern er bindet seine Vorstellungen von neuen infrastrukturellen Möglichkeiten trans-kontinentaler Verkehrs- und Transportachsen ebenso in sein Projekt ein wie die neu entstehenden Grundlagen gigantischer Energie-gewinnung.
Eindrucksvoll ist dabei schon in dieser Kurzfassung seines visionären Konzepts die redliche Auseinandersetzung mit ähnlichen, schon bestehenden Projekten, wie beispielsweise des Projekts "Atlantropa" von Herman Sörgel aus 1928, mit möglichen Auswirkungen auf die Strömungssituation zwischen Mittelmeer und Atlantik bei Gibraltar bis zur möglichen Beeinflussung des Golfstromes, die Einbeziehung geologischer und tektonischer Gegebenheiten und die Abwägung der Vor- und Nachteile von Schüttdämmen, Pontonbrücken oder Tunnelröhren.
Vorerst ist Michael Prachensky's Vision eines kontrollierten Mittelmeerspiegels und der damit möglichen Rettung Venedigs in seiner Einmaligkeit als Lagunenstadt ein Traum. Ich wünsche mir aber nichts inständiger, als dass der kühne Architekt Michael Prachensky viele "Mitträumer" findet, die die Sinnhaftigkeit seiner Überlegungen begreifen, an die Machbarkeit der von ihm vorgeschlagenen technischen Innovationen glauben und helfen können, die wirtschaftliche Realisierbarkeit dieses "Neuen Atlantis" sicherzustellen.
Wattens, im April 2007
Prof. Dr. Manfred Schlapp - Vaduz - Liechtenstein
Philosoph, Psychologe und Philologe
ENDE DER UTOPIEN? ..............NEW ATLANTIS LÄSST GRÜSSEN!
Als Vater der neuzeitlichen Utopien gilt der englische Philosoph und Staatsmann Thomas More (1535 enthauptet). In seiner "Utopia", einem dialogisch angelegten Reisebericht, imaginierte er eine ferne Insel, die sich der Verfassung eines "status optimus" erfreut. More's "Utopia" inspirierte in der Folgezeit viele Denker, so auch seinen Landsmann Francis Bacon, den Verfasser des utopischen Reiseromans "New Atlantis": Seefahrer, ausgerüstet mit modernstem Gerät, entdecken ein abgelegenes Eiland, auf dem sie den Garten Eden zum Blühen bringen - Platons sagenhaftes Atlantis lässt grüssen!
Bacon's "New Atlantis" spiegelt sich in Kants berühmter Insel-Metapher wider. Mit Hilfe eines Bildes, das jedermann verstand, rief Immanuel Kant seinen Zeitgenossen zu: Hört endlich auf, den Ozean der Metaphysik zu befahren, jene trügerische See, wo ihr nur Schiffbruch erleiden könnt, und wendet euch mit all eurer Kraft der Insel zu, auf der ihr lebt! Hier, auf der Insel der real existierenden Welt, herrschen Not und Elend; hier gibt es viel zu tun!
Mit seiner Insel-Metapher erteilt uns Kant auch heute noch einen klaren Auftrag: die Um- und Neugestaltung der Welt mit Hilfe der reinen Vernunft (=Wissenschaft) und mit Hilfe der praktischen Vernunft. Die Wissenschaft hat die Aufgabe, den Ist-Zustand zu analysieren und die Defizite zu erheben. Und dem Homo faber obliegt es, die Ärmel hochzukrempeln und diese Defizite zu beheben - getreu dem Motto: "Hallo, Herr Nachbar, das Paradies ist machbar!"
Auch Paradiese brauchen ein Fundament, das ihnen Dauer garantiert. Ein solches Fundament manifestiert sich in einem Bündnis der Völker, wie es Kant in seinem Traktat "Zum Ewigen Frieden" konzipiert hat. Die Rufe aus Königsberg, wo Kant lebte, dachte und starb, fanden im 19. Jahrhundert einen machtvollen Widerhall, am wirkmächtigsten bei Karl Marx. Das 20. Jahrhundert aber nahm Schritt für Schritt Abschied von den Utopisten. Desillusioniert von mörderischen Kriegen und belehrt von bitteren Erfahrungen wollte man von utopischen Entwürfen nichts mehr wissen. Der Kurzzeit-orientierte Pragmatiker hatte den Visionär verdrängt.
Kommt es mit dem Beginn des dritten Jahrtausend zu einer Wiedergeburt visionär denkender Menschen, die das entleerte Prinzip Hoffnung von neuem mit Ideen füllen, die weit in die Zukunft reichen? Es wäre an der Zeit! Wie schön wäre es etwa, wenn das Römische Reich - mutatis mutandis als ein Kulturraum wiedergeboren würde, in dem sich die Mittelmeerländer in Frieden und Wohlstand vereint sähen. Einem solchen Projekt kann man nur aus vollem Herzen zurufen:
vivat! crescat! floreat!
Vaduz, im Juni 2007
Bundeskanzlerin der Bundesrrepublik Deutschland und derzeitige Ratsvorsitzende der EU und des G8 Ausschusses- ein großes Anliegen ist die Lösung des Klimawandels. Bei diesem interessanten Projekt sind 8 EU Mitgliedsstaaten, 5 zukünftige Erweiterungsstaaten und 6 prvilegierte Staaten der Media Gruppe, zuzüglich Lybien betroffen. (20 Staaten)
Am G8 Gipfel in "Heiligendamm" am 6. Juni 2007, hoffen wir, daßm einiges Erreicht wurde.
Bürgermeister von Venedig und Philosoph: Die Rettung des Welt-kulturerbes Venedig ist die größte Herausforderung. Es muß einen nachhaltige, ökologische Gesamtlösung gefunden werden:
TABLE OF CONTECTS - IN BLOCKS
1. The situation: Aqua Alta Venice
2. Global warming Mediterranean Alps
3. Life and culture in the Mediterranean
4. The key: the Strait of Gibraltar
5. Different Gibraltar projects
6. Nuova Atlantis
7. The Suez Canal
8. The Black Sea the Sea of Azov
9. The Dead Sea
10. The western coast of Europe the Baltic Sea
11. Talpino high-performance transport system for goods container ports
12. Alternative energies desalination plants
13. Alternative, ecological agriculture
14. From vision to implementation
15. Ecology economy damage control costs
16. Next steps feasibility studies
17. Links to different scientific and special-interest topics.
01 - SALVATE VENEZIA SALVATE IL MEDITERRANEO - ARRIVIDERCI VENEZIA, CIAO
I mutamenti climatici sono un pericolo mondiale
Oggi è generalmente noto che i mutamenti climatici in atto a livello mondiale comporteranno, nel lungo periodo, un riscaldamento globale del pianeta. Una conseguenza di questa situazione è data da un innalzamento del livello dei mari su scala mondiale. Secondo un rapporto dell'ICCP del febbraio 2007, si prevede che nei prossimi decenni tale innalzamento sarà compreso mediamente tra i 9 e gli 88 cm. Non mancano però dichiarazioni di autorevoli scienziati che pronosticano per alcune regioni, come ad esempio il Mediterraneo, un innalzamento del livello del mare di gran lunga superiore già nel prossimo futuro.
Questa evoluzione è una grave minaccia per Venezia
Da oltre un millennio Venezia ha imparato a vivere con il mare. Ma proprio per questo la Città sarà particolarmente colpita dalle conseguenze del riscaldamento globale. Garantire a Venezia un'efficace protezione contro l'acqua alta è un imperativo per il futuro. Il progetto denominato MOSE, attualmente già in fase di costruzione, è controverso per quanto attiene la sua concezione tecnica e discutibile sotto un profilo ecologico. Il MOSE può risultare efficace, caso mai, nell'immediato, laddove incomba un rischio acuto di catastrofe; ma in presenza di un costante innalzamento del livello del mare non basterà a proteggere concretamente Venezia nel tempo.
E' necessaria una stabilizzazione ecologica del Mediterraneo
L'Adriatico, in quanto parte del Mediterraneo, forma assieme al Mar Nero e al Mare Azov un mare semichiuso interconnesso e quindi l'innalzamento delle acque interesserà tutte le regioni costiere e le isole di questi mari. Questo significa che ad essere minacciata non sarà solo Venezia, ma anche tutte le coste, con le loro zone turistiche e con le loro città e paesi ricchi di storia e di cultura. In alcune regioni la crescente salinificazione delle falde acquifere mette a repentaglio anche le basi dell'alimentazione della popolazione, come ad esempio nel delta del Nilo, il granaio dell'Egitto.
Per contrastare questa minaccia servono progetti visionari, valutazioni di lungo periodo, risolutezza politica e cooperazione internazionale. Esistono già varie proposte finalizzate al collegamento dell'Europa e dell'Africa nella zona di Gibilterra attraverso una diga, un ponte o un tunnel. Il presente progetto propone la costruzione di una diga nello Stretto di Gibilterra che permetterà di regolamentare il livello del mare praticamente al livello odierno e quindi di ottenere una stabilizzazione ecologica del Mediterraneo.
Il vantaggio di questa soluzione è evidente. Con una diga di 14 km si potrebbero proteggere durevolmente 55.000 km di superficie costiera. La costruzione è tecnicamente fattibile e più efficace di misure isolate, quali ad esempio il progetto MOSE. I pro e i contro vanno valutati attentamente, subordinando la concezione tecnica agli aspetti ecologici.
Da Venezia nel mondo
Si tratta di un progetto di pace transfrontaliero. E in fase di preparazione una mostra itinerante che, partendo da Venezia, si propone di presentare il progetto in tutti gli Stati confinanti che si affacciano sul Mediterraneo. Inoltre, è in programma uno studio di fattibilità nel quale verranno analizzati approfonditamente gli aspetti economici, tecnici ed ecologici del progetto. Si prevede che lo studio verrà finanziato dagli Stati confinanti, dall'Unione Europea e dall'ONU, unitamente a sponsor privati.
Alla luce della specialità di Venezia, della sua unicità in quanto patrimonio culturale mondiale, ed anche della particolare minaccia che il mare rappresenta per la sua sopravvivenza, il progetto verrà presentato per la prima volta a Venezia ed è auspicabile che da qui riesca ad incontrare un interesse internazionale, perché tutto il mondo deve essere interessato alla conservazione di un irripetibile spazio culturale mediterraneo.
Per informazioni dettagliate sul progetto:
Architetto DI Michael Prachensky
Translatet- in organisation
English - Spanisch - Französisch - Italienisch -Griechisch - Türkisch - Arabisch - Hebräisch - Kroatisch - in Bearbeitung.
Because of changes in the ship access to the Lagoon, global warming and the resulting rise in the sea level, Venice is more and more being submerged in water. On 4 November 1966, St Mark's Square was already two meters under water. The forecast of the "Roman International Global Institute" RIGI claims that within forty years Venice will be fully submerged despite the MOSE Project. But there are alternatives:
Salvare Venezia - Save Venice - Salvare il Mare Mediterraneo - Salvar Venicia - Salvar el Mar Mediterraneo
Salvare Mare Mostrum
The well-meant six billion euro MOSE Project ("Module Sperimentale Elettromeccanico") is not a solution, since the next decades are expected to see an increase in earth warming and, as a consequence, further melting of the North and South Pole. The result: a rise in the sea level (according to IPPC AR4 18-38 cm or 9-88 cm - in the long term up to seven meters see Appendix 12, 13). However, only a few decimeters are already enough for a flood scenario in Venice. The mayor of Venice - Massimo Cacciari is also very critical of the MOSE Project.
Climatic changes are of a global nature - Europe is concerned, as well - we have to find solutions! Save Venice Save the Mediterranean Sea "Acqua Alta" and "Land submerged"- see: ZDF Video Library "Wissen entdecken Erde & Klima"
Die Angst vor der Flut in Venedig
The fear of a flood in Venice
Land submerged- Venice The breath of the Lagoon - Venice is sinking more and more: Magistrato alle Acque:
- 80 cm: land submerged!
- 100 cm: only small parts of the city are flooded.
- 110 cm: a state of alarm is proclaimed; ca. 10% of the city are covered with water
- 125 cm: approximately half of the city is flooded.
- 140 cm: a state of emergency is declared; 90% of the city are flooded and there is nothing that the MOSE Project can do about it. In order to solve this problem, the objective must be to save the entire Mediterranean.
The Adriatic seaports, such as Venice, Trieste and Koper, are ideally connected with the north. A high-performance rail connection in the northern direction of Munich and eastern direction of Vienna has failed because of the railroad traffic system. We need "environmentally friendly high-performance systems" for container transport through the Alps.
Talpino Eco Trans is the alternative
Stefan Rommerskirchen, traffic expert from the Swiss consulting company ProgTrans, comments on the above-average increase of goods traffic compared to economic growth in Europe. In his opinion, transport traffic will increase by an additional 40 percent in the next 15 years. At the same time, he claims, trucks will become more modern and "cleaner" at a rapid rate. "Those who accept the growing international division of labor as well as the increasing integration of Europe and, at the same time, want to adhere to our consumption patterns, also must accept the transport of goods", says Rommerskirchen.
Talpino - the environmentally friendly system for crossing the Alps
It has approximately 12 times the capacity of the railroad system. It would substantially reduce the number of trucks crossing the Alps and thus the amount of CO2 emissions.
Talpino- die umweltfreundliche Alpenquerung
Diese hat die ca. 12 fache Leistung einer Eisenahn- die LKW Transitflotten über die Alpen werden dadurch wesentlich reduziert und damit der CO2 Ausstoß wesentlich eingedämmt.
The Brenner motorway will be entirely freed from truck traffic. The much discussed "Alemagna" motorway from Venice, Cortina, and Bruneck north into the Zillertal valley is rejected by the population. At the same time, the pressure from the industry is increasing railway or combined rail/road systems cannot solve this issue. We propose a new, environmentally friendly high-performance transport system (see picture), from which individual communities and regions can profit.
The Brenner Railroad Base Tunnel is logistically outdated. Based on traffic forecasts no relief of the situation can be expected. Likewise, the "railroad-friendly" TEN (Trans-European Networks) offer no long-term solution; they are outdated and must immediately be revised in general.
In Europe we need environmentally acceptable high-performance systems for mass transport!
The "Talpino Route" Lyon Toulouse - Saragossa- Madrid- Cordoba Gibraltar Morocco - Algeria. is of trans-regional importance.
The position of Venice as traditional port city and World Heritage Site must be considered carefully. We need an overall and sustainable solution for the Mediterranean Sea to cope with the problems of Venice with its ship traffic and ecology in the wider context of the Adriatic Sea and the Venetian Lagoon.
There are solutions:
The MOSE Project in Venice plans the construction of mechanical barriers. They are to separate the lagoon from the sea in the case of a storm surge. 76 building components with a width of up to 28 meters are to be installed on the sea bed at the three entrances of the Lagoon to the Adriatic Sea. The costs are currently estimated at six billion euros; the maintenance costs are calculated at eight million euros per year!
The MOSE project plans the use of barriers to stabilize the sea level within the Lagoon. The barriers must be closed when the tide rises more than 115 cm above the standard sea level. This is mostly the case in the stormy months of November and March and will according to forecasts happen very often once the project is finished.
In the 19th century, the sea level was ca. 23 cm lower than today. If the scientists' forecasts (IPPC) are correct, namely that the sea level will continue to rise over the next years (even if only to small degree), the MOSE barriers would have to be activated already every other day.
Given these parameters, the MOSE Project is already outdated, since Venice is fully flooded already at a height of 1.5 meters. A state of emergency would have to be declared. In cases of storm floods and low-pressure weather this happens very fast, as the year 1962 has shown!
Immediate alternative measures are necessary to cope with a rise in the sea level in the range of 9-88 cm, not to mention the more radical scenario of seven meters.
The largest problem of the MOSE Project will be the water exchange between the lagoon and the Adriatic Sea the lagoon could turn into a large, foul-smelling sewer.
Save Venice- Save the entire Mediterranean
Rettet Venedig- Rettet das gesamte Mittelmeer
The illustration shows the world's oceans and their different sea levels. In their shape, they deviate from an ellipsoid, because gravitation is distributed unequally. Most likely, different magnetic fields of the globe produce this surface pattern.
The new generation of satellites is able to record the rise in the sea level with an incredible degree of precision in the millimeter range.
The surface of the oceans spans approximately 360,000,000 km². The Mediterranean Sea comprises 2,596,000 km², the Black Sea approximately 424,000 km², and the Sea of Azov 38.000 km². These inland seas are nothing but "small bathtubs" compared to the surface of the large oceans, not to mention the large depths of up to 11,000 m in the oceans.
The greenhouse effect is caused not only by carbon dioxide, but also by water vapor - H2O, nitrous oxide - NO2, methane - CH4, and ozone - O3). These gasses let most of the short-wave sun radiation pass through the atmosphere on to the earth. The critical element is that they increase the reflection of the outgoing long-wave infrared radiation emitted from the earth's surface and thus increase the temperature of the earth atmosphere, naturally by 33 degrees up to an average temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.
Based on computer simulations, US researchers predict that arctic areas free of ice will be a reality not in 2080, but as early as 2040.
Prof. Kromp-Kolb (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna): As a consequence of climate warming, one can figure that the sea level could rise four meters by the year 2100 with the consequence of human migration movements. Still, she doesn't see herself as a "Cassandra", but believes that we have the chance to take corrective measures.
Especially Greenland, the North Pole, as well as the Alps are affected by climate warming. The melting of the ice and the warming of the oceans will cause the sea level to rise. Already, the arctic ice surface has shrunk by 8% in the past 25 years and this tendency is rising.
Since 1861, the development of yearly global average temperatures has been recorded. 145 years later, in 2007, one can observe a trend which can no longer be attributed to chance:
The ten warmest years ever recorded are between 1995 and 2006. A great number of different forecasts and simulations clearly show climate changes, global warming and the resulting rise in the sea level.
See IPCC AR4 Report WBGU Sondergutachten 2006- Meeresspiegelerhöhung, Hurrikane, Gefährdung der Küsten
The European Mediterranean Sea is a remnant of the Mesozoic Tethys Ocean. Six million years ago plate tectonics caused a collision of Africa and Europe, and the Strait of Gibraltar was closed. Parts of the Mediterranean Sea dried out repeatedly so that large Tertiary gypsum and salt deposits can be found at the sea floor. The last time that the Mediterranean dried out (at least in part) was during the ice ages.
In 1985 Henry Cosquer, a French diver, found a cave with cave paintings near Marseille, which subsequently was named after him. The entrance to the cave is 36 meters below sea level, which proves a lower sea level in the Mediterranean Sea in pre-historic times.
The last ice age (Weichsel-Würm) in Europe could have looked like this: Green deciduous and mixed forests in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and Mediterranean vegetation in the Sahara. One of my visionary ideas is to protect the Mediterranean coastlines by means of a sustainable concept and to turn it green again. The sea level of the Mediterranean must be maintained at the standard level.
There are already a number of concepts that try to bridge the Strait of Gibraltar by means of dams, tunnels or bridges. The most incredible project was "Atlantropa" by Herman Sörgel in 1928, envisaging an embankment dam in Gibraltar to reclaim 660.200 km² of land from the Mediterranean through lowering the sea level by 200-300 meters.
It was argued that (despite river runoff in the Mediterranean through the Nile, Rhone, Po and Danube) evaporation would cause the sea level of the Mediterranean and Black Sea to sink by ca. 1.65 m per year, once the Strait of Gibraltar is closed.This means that lowering the sea level of the Mediterranean by 100 meters would require a time period of more than 60 years!
Lowering the sea level in the Mediterranean Sea clearly shows the degree of land reclamation envisaged by architect Herman Sörgel especially in the Adriatic Sea. The islands of Corsica and Sardinia have grown together.
Through an artificial water dam Venice is preserved as a "lagoon" city a mere stage setting.
Via the new Strait of Messina a railway bridge leads to Africa. All coastal cities and ports in the Mediterranean Sea have ceased to exist.
The political objectives of the time included an expansion of Europe in the direction of Africa and the Ukraine with huge areas of newly gained land, new oil resources and electric power.
Today, this project is unthinkable from the perspective of the ecology, tourism, and the economy. The objectives have changed. Ecology is given preference.
Detailed view from a project work at the IKA TU Darmstadt with a visualization of the Sörgel Project. Here, we can clearly see the decrease in the sea level of the Mediterranean. A railroad bridge connects Sicily and Africa. The degree of land reclamation was expected to be enormous. It was calculated that lowering the sea level of the Mediterranean by 200 m would result in 660,200 km² of new land. The existing coasts and historical coast cities are abandoned. Venice would become an "island" fortress surrounded by water. Numerous island groups would grow together, such as the Lipari Islands, Sardinia and Corsica, the Greek Cyclades, Majorca and Minorca, Malta, and Sicily. Other islands, such as Djerba, Elba, Corfu and Kefalonia, Samos, Chios, Lesbos and Kos would be connected with the main land?!
A comparison to illustrate the dimensions envisaged by the Sörgel Project:
- Spain 504.546 km²
- Italy 301.336 km²
- France 543.956 km²
- Germany 375.092 km²
- Atlantropa 660.200 km² if the sea level is lowered by 200 m
The objectives of the time were to gain "suitable land, to be cultivated and to still the real and political hunger for lebensraum for the European people".
Clearly, today this project would be ecological and political madness.
Another project stems from Richard Brook Catheart 1998, who discusses hypotheses voiced by Prof. Robert G. Johnson (Secrets of the Ice Ages). He claims that the Mediterranean Sea at the Strait of Gibraltar has a strong influence on the Gulf Stream, which could lead to a new ice age.
This hypothesis was refuted by Prof. Stefan Rahmstorf from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, with his scientific work "Influence of Mediterranean outflow of climate".
In principle, I cannot imagine a lowering of the Mediterranean by 50 meters, as is proposed by R.B. Catheart this would mean an ecological and economic disaster for all coasts along the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
In contrast to all other Mediterranean Sea projects, the "Prachensky Project" plans to build a "controlled dam" in the strait of Gibraltar and an additional lock at the Suez Canal to keep the sea level of Venice and the entire Mediterranean and Black Sea at the standard level. This difference of 9 to 88 cm (and beyond that up to 7 m as predicted by some) will be utilized for power generation, desalination plants, etc.
Toll income and income from selling real estate property along this dam are significant contributions to financing the project.
Financial contributions from the countries along the Mediterranean coasts concerned (coastal length: 50.000 km), the Black Sea with ca. 4,340 km and Sea of Azov with ca. 38.000 km, could help put the project into practice very fast.
Approximately 250 million people live around the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Cairo alone is home to 17.5 million people. (In this area of the Mediterranean, there are 150 cultural sites which the UNESCO lists as World Heritage Sites.)
In addition to the contributions from the neighboring states, funding from UN and EU institutions is needed to realize the dam project.
It has become a peace project between Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
"The Strait of Gibraltar"
The Strait has always been a very special place. The "Pillars of Hercules" and "Atlantis" still raise numerous historical questions. In any case, it is a very special place the "bridge" between the continents of Europe and Africa.
A further project is the hybrid bridge by Tung-Yen Lin. The enormous height of the piers reaching down to the sea floor and the large spans of this bridge would make enormous technical demands on architects and builders.
However, the project does not deal with the rising sea level of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean, as is the case with the Prachensky Project.
One more project plans a floating tunnel tube proposed by architect Eugen Tsui, which, however, also fails to address the issue of the rising sea level brought about by climate change!
A further project is the "pontoon highway bridge" across the Strait of Gibraltar conceived by Prof. Frei Otto - Tensile Structures 1967. The Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean are separated by Kevlar fibers or flexible film-like materials.
The general rise of the sea level on the side of the Atlantic Ocean is stopped by the floating pontoons to which the film is affixed. The proposal foresees lowering the sea level on the Mediterranean side by a minimum of 50 m!
The flow rate from the Atlantic Ocean into the Mediterranean Sea varies from 0.8 to approximately 1.5 million m³ per second! (Clearly, a static and operational challenge, e.g. in case of torn films). Similarly, water flowing back from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean at the sea floor poses technical problems for the film connections.
Remark: I had the opportunity to study and work with Prof. Otto Frei at the University of Stuttgart for some years. (Institute for Lightweight Structures and Conceptual Design)
A further project is an underground tunnel tube leading below Gibraltar. A standard railroad system can copy with only extremely small inclinations, with the result that long access routes on the main land of Spain and Morocco would be necessary. A high-performance tunnel for people and truck traffic, as proposed by Jose Maria Pliego, requires appropriate ventilation systems with the corresponding engineering consequences (ventilation ducts).
Another variation is a tunnel for trucks, private car traffic and rail traffic proposed by Ing. Giovanni Lombardi. The illustration shows the complexity of this 40 km long and 300 m deep "road/rail tunnel". One of the tunnel tubes is used for the road, the other one for rail traffic. In the middle there is a service and rescue tunnel.
The costs are estimated at 27 million euros. If one compares this estimation with the costs of the Gotthard or the Brenner Base Tunnel, these calculations seem excessively low.
The current state of the art in tunnel construction requires separate tunnel tubes for each direction for both road and rail, not to mention the ventilation problems in a 40 km long tunnel with the projected truck traffic.
Above and beyond that, the operating costs are very high the ventilation systems with the necessary filters and the energy costs of the vehicles and the railway - 300 m down and 300 m back up again, with a total tunnel length of 40 km - are extremely costly compared to an even route and are unacceptable from an economic point of view. (CO2 exhaust fumes)
The basic setup of this underwater tunnel project is already outdated. New solutions have to be developed. In this case, the governments of Spain and Morocco were counseled badly.
Despite their individual shortcomings, these projects provide geological data which are extremely helpful for elaborating alternative solutions, such as the Gibraltar Dam. The meeting point of the African and the European Plate makes this location a highly sensible spot, especially for tunnel projects at the projected depth.
The illustration shows longitudinal and cross sections of the geological conditions in the Strait of Gibraltar. The cross section clearly shows the problems of a subterranean tunnel the deeper the tunnel is built, the longer the access routes for the road or the railroad must be.
With a dam solution various geological problems could be avoided more easily. For this reason, a curved dam is proposed, which can be adapted to the geographical and geological conditions more easily than a straight bridge construction.
However, none of these projects deals with the main issue of the sea level rise caused by climate warming and this is the key question of all of our considerations.
"The objective of the Prachensky Project is to stabilize the sea level in the Mediterranean at its standard level."
Here, the largest economic benefits are created for the Mediterranean countries - in terms of the ecology, tourism and agriculture. Power generation and infrastructure, energy, desalination plants, and traffic connections are but desirable "by-products", which should facilitate the challenge of financing the project. All neighboring states of the Mediterranean and Black Sea with their coastal areas are the real beneficiaries!
European Mediterranean Sea: numerous neighboring states
Facts & figures
Area: 2 505 000 square kilometers
Volume: 3.7 million km³ (estimated)
Coastal length: 50.000 km compared with the Gibraltar Dam and its length of 14.50 km
Islands: ca. 5.000
Extension: north-south ca. 1.000 km
east-west ca. 4.000 km
Gibraltar - Nuevo Atlantis has the chance to become a new finance center between the continents of Africa and Europe. Here, business centers and banks will settle. There will be plenty of new impulses here - with a new container port and connections to environmentally friendly traffic systems. If one looks at a global map, Nuevo Atlantis, Dubai, Shanghai, Tokyo, New York, and Panama will develop into new business centers.
The location of Nuevo Atlantis has an enormous future potential the design of the new city would have to be worked out in detail.
Despite water fed by the Black Sea, the Po, the Rhone, the Nile etc., the evaporation rate of the Mediterranean is so high that the main water inflow must continue to come via Gibraltar.
Water from the Atlantic Ocean enters the Mediterranean with a speed of approximately 5-10 km/h via the Strait. Different scientific studies have calculated a flow of up to 1.5 million m³ of water per second from the Atlantic Ocean through the 14.5 km Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea.
Already a difference in the sea level of more than 0.10 cm can be used to generate energy from the tidal range, waves and flow rate.
The forecasts of different scientists in the IPCC AR4 Report talk about scenarios of an 18-38 cm or 9-88 cm (up to 7 m) sea level rise.
If the water inflow through Gibraltar were interrupted, the sea level would sink by 1.65 m per year with far-reaching consequences for the entire Mediterranean Sea. This means that the possibility to control the Gibraltar Dam in the centimeter range within the current forecasts (20-88 cm) makes a lot of sense. The crest of the dam would be 10 m higher.
A comparison: in the flood season, 10 000 m³ of water per second flow over the Victoria Falls in Africa, the largest waterfall on earth, with a river width of 1.708 m.
In the beginning there was an idea ...
In the "Loba", the Seefeld fishing waters, an attempt was made to change the water level by means of an eco dam in such a way that fish can swim upstream and downstream. In my opinion, the system works, especially since it could replace the ugly concrete fish ladders used for dam constructions in our environment. In the past years, "environmental engineering" has developed at the universities and scientifically researches such questions.
This was the first impulse for developing an "ecological high-tech dam" along this philosophy. Perfect construction technology in the service of ecological considerations. The high-tech dam "Nuevo Atlantis" will look entirely different, but follows the same basic idea.
Ökodamm - Renaturierung des Landschaftbildes an einem Speichersee- Achensee Tirol
The sea level of the Mediterranean is stabilized at the old, standard level.
The embankment or high-tech Gibraltar Dam is approximately 14 km long. Depending on which route is chosen along a stretch of 7 km, the depth varies between ca. 300-500 m at the deepest spot. On both sides, the dam smoothly levels out to 0.00 m along a distance of 3.5 km.
The dam crest is able to support road and rail traffic. In the future, the difference between the sea level of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea might be as much as seven meters. Additionally, the tidal range between high and low tide is used, which is rather small but should not be neglected. In this respect, the details of the ship locks are critically important but can be resolved from a technical perspective. It is a lot more difficult, though, to maintain the ecological balance between the two seas e.g. the migration patterns of whales, dolphins, etc.) through special, large, and controlled fish passages or the different temperatures and sea salt concentrations in both seas. In this respect, the pertinent scientists must provide the answers and must be integrated from the project start.
Technology and research experts from different institutes, universities and enterprises in the field of dam construction, specialists in the fields of ocean currents, ecology, power generation, etc. have already voiced a strong interest in the project.
The Strait of Gibraltar with different currents on both sides, with its salt concentration, its ecology, the earthquake line, etc. must be researched intensively, before exact statements can be made. In principle, the project can be realized from a construction point of view. The static height of the dam amounts to a maximum of 10 m, which doesn't pose a problem.
The ecological advantages and disadvantages have to be weighed in my opinion, a large, future-oriented, and sustainable EU/Mediterranean project.
The location of the dam must be researched intensively it depends on the geological conditions, on the currents on both sides, and on the ecological effects on flora and fauna, etc. These investigations are time-consuming but absolutely necessary for a feasibility study. It is not necessary to build the shortest and deepest dam; an alternative could be a longer, less deep dam. At the narrowest point, the Strait of Gibraltar is approximately 14 km wide. In terms of civil engineering, we propose an embankment or high tech dam, which because of the small difference between the two water levels of max. seven meters does not have the same static requirements as a concrete retaining wall with water on one side only and a difference in height of 50-300 m.
- Geological studies
- Ecological studies
- Marine biology studies
- Evaporation and water surface studies
- Ocean current studies
- Environmental impact assessments (people, flora, fauna, soil, water, climate, air, landscape the interrelationship between these factors, economic consideration and the cultural heritage have to be weighed)
Such an enormous project invites a comparison will classical antiquity. Once, the pyramids of Giza were considered man-made constructions of incredible dimensions. Today, it is the size of the Gibraltar Dam that assumes seemingly unimaginable dimensions.
There are two possibilities for positioning the proposed stone embankment dam. The first option uses the shortest connection with a length of 14.6 km, which, however, is 800 m deep at its deepest point. The second option uses a route more to the west and has a length of 25.7 km and a maximum depth of 300 m. The shorter but deeper variation results in a dam volume of approximately 5 billion m³, and the longer but less deep variation would feature a volume of 1 billion m³. The first case corresponds to approximately 1,900 times the volume of the Pyramid of Giza, and in the second case approximately 400 times the volume of the Pyramid. (Source: Dr. Wolfram Höflinger, vbh, Innsbruck)
A further comparison is offered by the stone embankment dam in the Kaunertal valley (Gepatsch Reservoir) in Tirol:
The dam crest has a length of 600 m and a depth of 153 m down to the rocky bottom. The more than 7 million m³ of material were extracted from a nearby quarry.
Beispiel Felsschüttdamm in den Alpen - Kraftwerk Kaunertal und Gepatschspeicher
In addition to power generation from sea current, sea level difference, wind power, photovoltaic and solar technology, the temperature difference of the sea water (sea floor - surface), water (energy) reservoirs are planned on the main land (at a height of ca 800 m 900 m) that can be used to generate peak current. Additionally, these reservoirs can be used for water distribution via pipelines. Sea water desalination plants can be operated with these alternative power systems. Storing energy in water reservoirs located at the highest possible point is still very efficient.
Example of a dam crest - optimized utilization of the tidal range and/or waves.
In a first step, some of the locks are used for a current power plant. Additionally, the tidal range and waves are utilized. The flow rate of 0.88-1.5 Mio. m³/sec from the Atlantic Ocean can be used for power generation independent of the sea level rise. By means of a lock system, the current minimum sea level rise in the Atlantic Ocean is optimized for surface turbines. First, for a rise of 0.200.50 m some scientists predict a difference of 4-7 m in a more distant future. The Kaplan turbines are distributed along the 14 km dam crest the individual turbines have to process as much water as possible they should yield energy like a hydraulic power station with a low height every one of them generates 40-50 MW of electric power estimated performance (kW) = Q water flow rate (m³/sec) x H-fall height (m) x e.g. 0.5 m (first estimate once the dam is finished).
A comparison: the Itaipu Dam in Brazil is approximately 8 km long and has a height of 196 m. The amount of water processed is 0.62 million m³/sec. The power generated amounts to 14,000 MW generated by utilizing the height of normally approx. 100 m. Itaipu is considered one of the new Wonders of the World.
Illustration of a Francis Turbine
If the turbines are distanced 50 m from each other, this will result in a total of approximately 280 turbines and a power of 14,000 MW (more exact calculations are currently being worked out). If the number of turbines is doubled, the resulting power will be 28,000 MW. All in all quite considerable power generated by hydropower turbine plants (detailed calculations must follow). Analyses of the prevalent sea currents and their positions will define the final design of the power plant system and make it possible to install current power plants (watermills).
Sea water desalination plants on the side of the Atlantic Ocean can be operated with this energy service and drinking water pipelines from Nuevo Atlantis into the Sahara and on to the Spanish mainland should be built. Sweet water reservoirs can be built in Morocco and in Spain on the close-by mountains at an altitude of 400-800 m. This concept also foresees the use of these reservoirs for the generation of electricity and water pressure.
"Nuevo Atlantis" the city along the 14 km dam in the Strait of Gibraltar. The dam will connect Europe and Africa like a backbone. Its exact form will be adapted to the precise geological characteristics of the sea floor. This will also define the necessary volume of the embankment or concrete dam.
In addition to road infrastructure for people and goods plus a railroad system (railway, Talpino Light, Talpino Eco Trans), locks for fish (dolphins, whales, plankton etc.), saltwater exchange, Kaplan turbines, MCT (underwater Marine Current Turbines), water rotors, windmills etc., will be built. A metropolitan infrastructure a "bridge city" between the continents is planned. The highest buildings symbolize the "Pillars of Hercules". The name of this new city will be "Nuevo Atlantis". This new backbone will include pedestrian zones, businesses, shopping centers, hotels, restaurants, offices, train stations, underground parking areas, palm houses, museums, gambling casinos, an entertainment park, power plants, yacht harbors on both sides, research institutions and a university, student dorms, children's homes, an SOS Children's Villages, etc.
An environmental research center for marine biology, limnology, climate warming, alternative energies, etc. will also be included.
Preliminary studies of "Il Ponte" the future "Nuevo Atlantis" city bridging the continents of Europe and Africa show that there could be a relatively large number of buildings. It should be no problem to market the real estate property.
Ship locks will be built. Tankers, container ships, jumbo transporters, cruise ships, amphibian ships, etc. that can pass through the Suez Canal, can also pass through Nuova Atlantis. Here, the size of the locks can be dimensioned much more flexibly.
Example of tube anchoring high-tech embankment dam safety measures:
With this solution the hollow prefabricated tubes can be transported to the site economically and can be sunk precisely by means of filling them with water. The external hollow tubes can be lined with concrete at the site. The reinforcement of the tubes is already an integral part of the system. The inner vertical ring can be accessed by means of vertical baskets for different studies and control operations.
The necessary filling operations at this retaining wall are accomplished by ships with bottom hatches or by means of the Talpino transport system theoretically a container with 400 m³ of filling material every ten seconds. With this system the necessary earth movements can be carried out without any problem. Later, the auxiliary road for the Talpino system can be expanded to become a road for transporting goods and people and for connecting the continents. This system is not defined by a strict schedule but by demand.
Talpino is a business - the theoretically highest transport capacity is only required in peak times. This is something that a road/rail system cannot accomplish. The railway system has failed to make the necessary technology leap. I don't know any logistics expert who wouldn't prefer a go&up or bit&byt system.
Section of "Nuevo Atlantis" in the 14 km wide Strait of Gibraltar. The city forms the entrance gate from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and the highest towers symbolize the legend of the "Pillars of Hercules". At this point, the towers are assumed to be 150 m high. The filling operations are supported by prefabricated ring foundation elements.
The turbines of the power plants (hydraulic, tidal, wind as well as solar and photovoltaic power plants) are located along the dam and will be a characteristic feature of the overall architectural design.
The "Nuevo Atlantis Project" with its 14 km long dam is a profitable combination of the primary objective and the income from power generation. The primary objective is to stabilize the rise of the sea level in the Mediterranean and thus to save the Mediterranean seacoasts.
The dam connects the two continents of Europe and Africa by means of a road, railway, or the new "Talpino" technology. Additionally, cables for electric power and communication lines, pipelines for oil, drinking water, service water, and gas etc. will be installed.
Moreover, Nuevo Atlantis would be the ideal location for academic research institutions (Institute for Alternative Energy and Ecology, etc)
The principle will be to use ecological high-tech constructions - the latest know-how in the field of energy-saving construction is to be employed. Horizontal wind rotation fans, cooling and heating ceiling elements, insulation elements with integrated micro-photovoltaic films, absorption and storage surfaces etc.
In order to ensure the necessary safety, the massive elevator tubes are equipped with excess pressure; the individual, massive ceilings are crash-protected; the facades consist of elastic, network tissues etc. The objective is to make Nuevo Atlantis self-supportive by means of alternative energy. A model city of the 21st century.
The first metropolitan studies will show how wide the dam crest will be.
Nuevo Atlantis will be a model of state-of-the-art architecture and technology, with
- alternative energies
- alternative building methods
- alternative architecture
- alternative ecological know-how
They have to be integrated into and balanced with a sustainable overall concept.
Besides the current analyses at the dam, the location and dimension of the eco locks are critically important. They are among the largest challenges modern technology has to face (biological exchange, marine life, etc.)
Here, the migration of alien species into the Mediterranean ecosystem can be observed and controlled. The example of the Suez Canal shows how tropical fish, jellyfish and shellfish have migrated into the Mediterranean, leading to a far-reaching tropicalization of the eastern Mediterranean. The open (controlled) locks can also be accessed by means of research submarines. We have the vision of a future peace project of the Mediterranean!
"Nuevo Atlantis" will become one of the most attractive tourist sites of the Mediterranean - in addition to research facilities, international organizations, tourist facilities, hotels, museums, shopping, green terraces, palm houses, yacht harbors, restaurants, and commerce (offices, banks), residential buildings, pedestrian zones, train stations, sport stadiums, public places and market places, etc. Also, a marine observation station "a Mediterranean-Atlantic Marine Aquarium" inside the Nuevo Atlantis Dam could be envisaged.
The location of the main current openings between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean have yet to be worked out in detail (taking into account e.g. dolphin and whale passages - which size, which surfaces, which position, which depth, etc). These passages will be integrated into the dam project. The outflow of the heavier, slower salt water from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean has to be investigated, and it might be possible to employ deeper-lying current power plants.
The currents in the Strait of Gibraltar have yet to be analyzed in detail. The heavier salt water of the Mediterranean and the lighter water from the Atlantic Ocean form a very specific current behavior. Some studies about this exist already among others, from the GIBEX Program, POEM, Influence of Mediterranean on Climate Project etc. (for more detail see the Appendix)
The Gulf Stream is a warm, fast-flowing ocean current in the Atlantic Ocean. By transporting warm water, it operates like a large heating system, providing large parts of Western and Northern Europe, such as Ireland, Great Britain and Scandinavia, with a warmer climate than could be expected judging from their latitude.
The Gulf Stream is a part of a global, maritime current system.
Every second, the Gulf Stream transports up to 1.5 * 108 cubic meters of water (150 sv) 100 times more than all rivers in the world combined. It transports approximately 1 Petawatt of power. This roughly corresponds to the power generated by 1 million nuclear power plants.
"Thermohaline circulation" is the term for the global, density-driven circulation of the oceans. One must investigate in detail to which degree the out-flowing Mediterranean salt water could influence the Gulf Stream. Different scenarios could be worked out by means of test models and computer simulations.
The following investigations will be the most difficult ones:
- outflow of heavier and slower salt water from the Mediterranean into the Atlantic Ocean
- eco locks (plankton, marine life etc.)
- the flow of ocean currents with a lower salt concentration from the Atlantic Oceans into the Mediterranean Sea
- What could be the ecological consequences, etc?
In terms of civil engineering, the high-tech dam can be realized; it is primarily a logistical challenge to transport the necessary filling material to the building site.
There are solutions e.g. the Sahara stone desert is just around the corner.
At a later point, the auxiliary road built for transporting the building material can be used for building pipelines to carry electric power and service water.
Simulation models will help sea current analyses to determine which systems will have to be installed at which depth. In this case, physical and mathematical-numerical models will be applied to yield the desired information (e.g. at the Laboratory for Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck)
For power generation, one will also have to consider the selection of different types of hydro-power turbines (hydro power plants)
In the area of the Eco Towers (skyscrapers), horizontal rotation turbines will be integrated from the twelfth floor upwards, which utilize the wind for power generation. With this type of turbine, all wind directions can be utilized.
Example of tidal power stations in the open sea:
Because of the density of water, underwater mills generate significantly more kinetic energy than windmills in the air. For this reason, the rotors can be dimensioned significantly smaller. The location of the plant is crucial it will be installed where the strongest currents can be found - the minimum flow rate for economic use is approx. 10 km/h). We assume 1.5 million m³/sec more detailed studies will yield more exact results. For the Gibraltar Dam, special tidal turbines for the deeper-lying dam locks will be developed.
The "Prestige" oil spill off the Spanish Atlantic coast has shown the disastrous consequences of heavy fuel oil for nature and for tourism. The largest catastrophe in the Mediterranean was the senseless 2006 bombardment of a thermal power station in Jieh in the South Lebanon. Up to 35,000 tons of heavy fuel oil leaked into the Mediterranean Sea.
Another critical factor is the uncontrolled sewage dumping into the "Mediterranean"- the excessive fertilization of coastal agricultural areas also contributes to this burden. Additionally, uncleaned water from the Rhone, Nile, Po and Danube rivers keep flowing into the Mediterranean and Black Sea and increasingly damage the water quality. Among others, the large cites of Milan and Istanbul still have no sewage plants, not even to mention the many other uncontrolled inflow from the industry and other institutions into these seas.
There are a many reasons for creating special protective areas for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and the Sea of Azov. Here, biodiversity offers a particularly large wealth of marine life. Controlled fishing management could help preserve the ecological balance and the wealth of species in the Mediterranean.
Rettet den roten Tunfisch - greenpeace 2006
Because of the fast warming of the Mediterranean (within eight days from 30 to 34 degrees acc. to Meteosat 8-2006) there is an explosion of algae and jellyfish in the sea water.
Here joint efforts must be made to control the situation. Green Peace and the WWF have already laid the groundwork for further action.
The protected areas as envisaged by Green Peace: The map shows the marine reserves of the Mediterranean Seas; the latest scientific findings about habitats and marine biodiversity were taking into consideration. The proposal also comprises the coastal regions.
Since the Black Sea is connected with the Mediterranean, the protected areas should be expanded to include the corresponding areas (Danube delta, Sea of Azov).
"Nuevo Atlantis" in Gibraltar and "Istambul" at the Bosporus will become new bases for Green Peace.
By means of the Talpino system, the "Nuevo Atlantis" container port can be accessed, which is important for building the Gibraltar Dam.
The necessary filling material for extending the Talpino road north and south can be transported economically and fast.
During the construction of the Talpino roads, various lines for infrastructure (drinking water, service water, sewage water, electricity and communication) will be integrated immediately.
"Nuevo Atlantis" will be one of the most interesting architectural "bridge cities in the world".
The entire Mediterranean Sea, Spain and Morocco are ideal areas for solar power plants, something that is especially true of the Sahara areas in North Africa. Because of global warming, these areas will become even hotter. By building these facilities, sea water desalination plants can be operated profitably through "intelligent" agricultural systems, the CO2 concentration in the air could be improved - and this is a positive contribution to global climate protection
EU funding of such facilities is necessary.
The map shows regions with water shortage the areas along the Mediterranean seacoasts are clearly visible - water shortage threatens areas from the Spanish and African Mediterranean coast all the way to the Middle East.
So far, we have only mentioned the Sahara area without providing any details. In these areas, withdrawing water from ground water reservoirs is critical. The strategic location of the Gibraltar Dams makes it possible to gain drinking and service water from the Atlantic Ocean with its lower salt concentration. This way, parts of the endangered coastal drought areas along both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar can be supplied with water.
The pipelines will be built along the auxiliary Talpino roads. They can carry industrial-use and drinking water for people and the agriculture into the dry areas adjacent to the Gibraltar Dam. In the Sahara (Morocco, Algeria), Spain, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt desalination plants at the coast and ground water reservoirs have to be installed directly adjacent to the dam. All of this requires alternative energy sources. Power generation by means of solar technology is to be preferred in these areas.
Small solar energy stations - Stirling, ideal for the Mediterranean and the Sahara areas
Solar updraft plants in cooperation with Prof. Jörg Schlaich - Stuttgart (see "Ideenlabor Osnabrück- radicalLANDSCAPE", etc., in cooperation with Michael Prachensky)
Alternative energies from photovoltaic to solar updraft plants, etc., are continuously improved already, the efficiency of these stations makes them interesting for economic and profitable use. The African Sahara desert is ideal for these forms of power generation.
Along the Talpino roads, subterranean GIL (gas-insulated transmission lines) or the newly developed high-temperature supra lines, will make it possible to transport electric power along long distances without having to face enormous power loss. Another benefit: there will be no ugly high-voltage transmission pylons to disturb the landscape with their power lines.
Desalination plants powered by solar energy or new developments (i.e. OSMOSE) the areas of South Spain and the Sahara are ideal areas for this kind of power generation. Also, photovoltaic power plants can be used to generate power along the Talpino roads (Talpino Power Plant).
The illustration shows an "MSF" (Multi Stage Flash Evaporation) desalination plant:
This principle can also be used to generate power. It would make sense to market the extracted salt rather than dumping it back into the sea.
Because of the climate change, desalination plants will be very important in the future, especially in Europe along the Mediterranean seacoasts. Along the Talpino roads, water pipelines will be installed. In the area of the "Nuevo Atlantis Dam" sea water from the Atlantic Ocean (lower salt concentration) will be used for the desalination plants.
Water will be desperately needed by the agriculture and as drinking water. (In the long term, "black gold" will be replaced by "blue gold")
Research of alternative solar energy and photovoltaic energy will intensify in the next years.
With an area of nine million km² the Sahara is the world's largest hot dessert roughly 26 times the size of Germany. The Sahara is mostly a stone desert. The sand desert is only a small part of the desert. By building the Talpino high-performance system, the material for building the Gibraltar Dam and the necessary roads with pipelines could be accomplished more easily.
Oases in Morocco, Algeria and Libya:
By means of service water from Gibraltar, diverse protected plants can be watered and tree oases can be expanded. They stabilize the soil, which can reduce ground water removal. Thus, the soil could be improved with humus. The CO2 absorption per tree and year amounts to 10 kg. 700 trees can grow per hectare, which amounts to approximately 36 tons of carbon dioxide absorbed in ten years an interesting contribution to global climate protection something that "new tree" has practiced in the Sahel for years. Whether this system can be applied in Africa's Chadian or Congo Basin has to be analyzed in greater detail. Water is the essence of peace the UN should focus on this aspect more strongly.
Re-cultivation attempts in Libya ground water used for industrial use one has to analyze to which degree salination damages the surfaces the open, large radial surfaces have cause enormous evaporation the "new tree" concept with shade and soil storage might have more future potential
The ground water should not be burdened but maintained at a balanced level.
Different shade-giving trees and shrubs are planted at different heights. The plants are watered by means of the water-saving micro-hose system (droplets), which can be regulated fully automatically. The soil works like a spongy storage reservoir whose surface expands in a natural way.
The "Garden of Eden" in the future desert oases.
Topical news 5.4.2007: Climate change threatens the live of billions of people. Especially the very poor and weak will be concerned according to the dramatic warning of the United Nations in reference to global warming. Experts from 130 countries approved the alarming, second part of UN climate report on Friday in Brussels after intensive discussions.
"Impacts, Adoption and Vulnerability" these key words confirm the assumptions of the Prachensky Project from 4.11.2006
By 2020 - because of climate change, also effecting food supply - in Africa 75-250 million people will suffer from water shortage. In some regions, "rain-based" income could be cut in half by 2020.
Climate change also reduces the agricultural area. The rise of the sea level threatens numerous cities. The ongoing destruction of the mangrove belt and coral reefs will have negative consequences both for the fishing industry and for tourism.
Stephan Singer, climate expert of the WWF Europe: the consequences of climate change are a lot more drastic than anticipated only a few years ago. The map of the world must be re-drawn: According to Singer, a warming of 1-2 degrees leads to a sea level rise of "four to six meters". This means that cities like New York, Amsterdam and Tokyo are doomed. The World Health Organization (WHO) figures with health damage for millions of people worldwide caused by climate change".
Klaus Töpfner UN member:
"The oil-producing Arab countries will also show an increasing interest in energies other than oil."
Prachensky: This also concerns the 55,000 km long coasts of the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the "Mediterranean Sea" itself! Venice, the World Heritage Site must be saved the entire Mediterranean Sea must be saved there are innumerable sights along these coasts.
The project described here figures with a sea level rise of 988 cm, as predicted by the IPPC Report. While I cannot imagine a rise of 4-6 meters, as predicted by some scientists, technologically, they pose no problem for the "Nuevo Atlantis" Gibraltar Dam.
Diese Bilder sollten der Vergangenheit angehören. Nuova Atlantis, die "EU- Friedensbrücke" zwischen den Kontinenten Afrika und Europa wird in Zukunft diesen notwendigen Übergang "human" regeln.
The situation in the Baltic Sea is similar to the one in the Mediterranean here, too, a dam can help maintain the current sea level. The European coastal areas at the Atlantic Ocean will have to face problems that can be resolved only by means of local dams. The Mediterranean Sea and the Baltic Sea have a special position because of the topography of the natural straits.
Sturmflutgefährdung an der Ostsee - UNI Kiel 1995
The Great Flood of the 21st century!
Western Europe is strongly threatened on the side of the Atlantic Ocean:
Possible dam breaks in the Netherlands, the coastal cities of Lisbon, Bordeaux, Nantes, Le Havre, London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, the Wadden Sea, Bremen, and Hamburg are possible scenarios.
St. Petersburg is strongly threatened by the Baltic Sea.
Violent storms, sprint tides and hurricanes contribute to the sea level rise. In extreme cases, the Mediterranean and Black Sea will be affected.
The force of Hurricane Kyrill hitting Europe on 20 January 2007 was the first warning (picture from the film).
Hamburg plans to complete its 103 km dam protection program by 2012 to cope with waves up to 8.50 m high.
"Google flood maps" can be used for worldwide simulations of the sea level. Without wind, without storm flood, without tidal range, without air pressure changes simply a simulation of the sea level rise (can be adjusted from 0 to 7 m)
The picture shows the Netherlands with a sea level rise of 5 m.
For Venice, the "flood map" shows very clear results.
Open google-flood-maps - move along the costs of Portugal Spain France Belgium the Netherlands Germany Denmark England Ireland Norway to the states at the Baltic Sea. The European coastlines are enormously threatened.
In France alone, communities and coastal regions affected include: Le Havre, Nantes, Nort and Bordeaux on the side of the Atlantic Ocean and on the Mediterranean the Cote d Azur the coastal area from Perpignan and Montpellier to Marseille.
The Stern Report - Nicholas Stern (Review on the Economies of Climate Change) talks about the flooding of four million km² of coastal areas.
In comparison with the large oceans, the Mediterranean Sea is a small inland sea the idea to maintain the sea level in the Mediterranean at its standard level speaks for itself.
Other critical elements include earthquakes in the Mediterranean area through possible shifts of the continental plates the Campi Flegrei at Naples, Mount Etna, Mount Marsili, Vesuvius, the Santorini islands etc. could become active again. Tsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea?
Tsunami im Mittelmeer ?
Simulation models can analyze to which degree Gibraltar is protected from potential tsunamis by the islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, and Majorca.
Earthquake-proof buildings and protected coastlines are large challenges for architects and planers. Worldwide, a lot of research has been conducted. The construction of the Gibraltar Dam will to large degree depend on theses studies embankment dam or mixed systems.
The assumed sea level difference is in the range of 9-88 cm.
Currently, a buoy warning system is installed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will start to operate by the end of 2007 and quickly supply precise data.
Through the construction of the Gibraltar Dam, Venice and the entire 55 000 km Mediterranean coasts with their cities and tourist beaches can be preserved. The overall benefit of the concept exceeds the relatively "small" costs by far.
Money for the MOSE Project and numerous other protective structures in the Mediterranean and Back Sea can be saved. It is predominantly an ecological project first to cope with a sea level rise of 9-88 cm.
The "Prachensky Project" "Save Venice" by means of Talpino has become a peace project, a European project. The controlled gate from Africa and Asia Minor via Istanbul can be opened.
Because of global climate change, the neighboring countries are concerned beyond their political borders here, the problem can be solved only through joint efforts. For the first time, military strategists cannot close their eyes to these considerations. The Mediterranean has a chance to cope with a sea level rise of 9-88 cm (IPCC Report February 07). All neighboring countries should join to create something new at Gibraltar Nuevo Atlantis the "peace bridge" of the continents. An age-old dream, the legends of the Mediterranean will come true.
The European Mediterranean Sea is a highly important holiday region, accounting for approximately 25% of all tourism worldwide a trend starting in the 19th century and today bringing approximately 200 million vacationers to the Mediterranean (as many tourists as local inhabitants in the coastal regions). For 2025, UN estimates (United Nations Environment Program) predict approx. 650 million visitors per year in den 21 Mediterranean countries, with 350 million visiting the coastal regions.
(Increased ground water level and salt concentration in the coastal areas, land lost at flat coasts, damage to agriculture and tourism, relocation of residential areas and jobs) Studies show enormous changes already with a sea level rise of 5 cm,)
Simulations were carried out for 1.44 m, 1.90, and 3.17 m (see Nile delta- Egypt below).
Another, small example is Majorca there are numerous steep coasts, but the few sandy beaches will vanish with the corresponding economic effects thousands of flat beaches surrounding the Mediterranean will cease to exist the economic damage will be incredible and this problem cannot be resolved by means of local dam projects, such as the MOSE Project in Venice. All Mediterranean countries, regions and communities must pool their energies and resources to realize the "Nuevo Atlantis" Gibraltar Project.
Some well know examples:
The French Riviera, the Adriatic Coast, Costa Brava, Corsica, Sardinia, Costa del Sol, Majorca, Antalya etc.
One of the areas concerned is the Nile delta: It is Egypt's food basis, its "breadbasket". Most areas of the threatened 50 km land strip along this delta coast are located two meters below sea level. The area is protected from floods by a narrow sand belt. Already a small rise in the water level will cause the Nile delta to be flooded. Light blue: flooding at an increase of 1 meter. If the water level rises by 0.5 m, Alexandria and Port Said are under water.
(The entire Nile delta has a size of 24,000 km²) (see Appendix 16)
The danger is eminent!
Already now, the area is strongly threatened by erosion because of the diminished flooding of the Nile, which could turn into a catastrophe if the sea level rises!
Egypt should have an existential interest in the "Nuevo Atlantis" project.
In the Mediterranean, surface temperatures have increased tremendously in July 2006 already 30 Grad were measured the Mediterranean is already termed a "bathtub", which has disastrous ecological effects. Excessive algae formation and a strongly increased jellyfish population can be attributed to this phenomenon.
Depth of the Mediterranean Sea: 1,450 Meter on average
Largest depths: 5,152 meters in the Ionian Basin at the west coast of the Peloponnesus.
Currently because of the salt concentration the temperature at the sea floor is at a constant temperature of ca. 12 - 13 degrees.
This temperature difference of theoretically 15 degrees Celsius could be used for generating power. In "Nuevo Atlantis" a corresponding "experimental plant" is planned.
Golf courses along the Mediterranean area will have to face serious problems already in the next few years. Because of the hot summer months and fairways dried-out despite watering (enormous evaporation) a lot of golfing tourists will fail to come in July and August. The authorities will prohibit the use of service water for private gardens, swimming pools and for golf courses. Similar effects will appear throughout Europe, and the agriculture will have to face even more drastic problems.
In Europe, the climate change can be observed best with the shrinking glaciers in the Alps. They are drastically reduced year by year - in a few decades most Alpine glaciers will no longer exist.
Already, covers are used to protect smaller areas used for skiing slopes additionally, snow-making machines are used for the skiing areas of the glaciers.
Currently, the television film "Messner's Alp" is produced, specifically focusing on environmentally friendly traffic systems.
Reinhold Messner in an interview with Michael Prachensky about the "alternative, environmentally friendly traffic system TALPINO ECO TRANS" at the Stilfser Joch presentation of the transalpine hover transport project Munich Stilfser Joch Milan Genoa. For details about the project, see my website under "Talpino Portal". Three sequels with 45 minutes each to be aired in December 2007 by the following stations: ARD, SWR Stuttgart, France 5, Wega Film, SF-DRS, Yle- DRS, RTV Slovenija, etc.
(Internationale Koproduktion: HDTV, Schwenk Film)
portal talpino Aussendung: Drei Filmfolgen mit je 45 Minuten Aussendung im Dezember 2007 im ARD, SWR Stuttgart, France 5, Wega Film, SF-DRS, Yle- DRS, RTV Slovenija u.a.
"Green Christmas" in the Alps even snow-making machines could hardly be operated during the last winter because of the warm weather. Ski races all over Europe had to be cancelled. Some ski and cross-country races might have to be cancelled permanently, such as Aare (Sweden), Chamonix, Val d`Isere, Chamonix, (France) Wengen, St. Moritz (Switzerland), Madonna di Campiglio (Italy), St. Anton, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Bad Gastein, Zauchensee, Kitzbühel, Seefeld (Austria). The irony of January 2007 for the Hahnenkamm "Streif" race in Kitzbühel, snow was transported from the Großglockner mountain to Kitzbühel by truck and dumped by helicopters onto the race slope. Despite the enormous effort of this "air bridge" it was not possible to carry out the "Streif" downhill race.
Alternatives must be found.
"Heat refugees" from the Mediterranean area will flock to the cooler Alps and spend their holidays there but what will the guests do in the winter without snow in the Alps? Indoor ski halls and spa facilities can be built anywhere.
Lautlos durch die Landschaft gleiten allen Problembereichen ausweichen - Bäumen, Felskuppen, sensiblen Landschaftsteile etc. das eben die Schneisenbauer der "Seil" Bahner nicht können.
In the area of the Suez Canal a lock will have to be built as soon as a certain sea level difference is reached (differences of 0.180.88 m and possibly up to 7.0 m). The lock could be used as hydraulic power station. The current energy in the Suez Canal is not likely to be significant, but the effective sea level difference in the lock area will be.
For time and economic reasons, the new, large container ships coming from Asia, should have the possibility to reach Europe or the Mediterranean Sea with its container ports and thus the connection to the Talpino distribution stations (Koper, Trieste, Venice, Marseille, etc.) as fast as possible.
The distance from Marseille to Bombay is reduced from 16,400 km via the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) to 7400 km.
The length of the Suez Canal is 162.5 km; the total length of the entire waterway is 190.25 km. In the north the Canal is 280-345 m wide and up to 100 m deep. Currently, flat areas are deepened to a minimum of 18 meters. The demands made on large liner ships are still increasing. Today, 15,000 ships use the Suez Canal passage every year.
An old wish since classical antiquity the Opening of the des 160 km long Suez Canal in 1869 under the project management of Ferdinand Lesseps. The Austrian civil engineer and railroad pioneer Arthur Negrelli (from the Trento region) did not live to see the opening.
The Suez Canal was built by the French Company du Universelle de Suez and opened for ship traffic in 1869. The building costs amounted to ca. 190,000,000 pounds, 12,800,000 of which were raised through a public share offering. In 1872, the revenues of the Society resulted in a profit of 2,000,000 francs, rising to 29,700,000 Franken in 1878. In 1956 the Suez Canal was nationalized. The income amounts to 60,5000,000 francs.
Another important Mediterranean Sea project is the "Dead Sea" There are already several projects for connecting the Dead Sea with the Mediterranean e.g. building a 300 km long inflow tunnel from the Mediterranean Sea to the Dead Sea, planned by Ing. Wendt and Kelm in 1975. The project foresees the use of a height difference of 420 m approximately for generating electricity to power desalination plants and thus for the agriculture.
Another project is the "Peace Canal" from the "Red Sea" to the "Dead Sea", which would be a much longer canal. It would also threaten the coral reefs of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
The "Prachensky Project chooses a connection from the Mediterranean Sea to the Dead Sea and already plans in the future sea level rise caused by climate warming. This "Peace Line" leads from the Mediterranean seaport of Tel Aviv below Jerusalem to the Dead Sea, with a horizontal tunnel and a height difference of 420 m, which can be used to generate electric power.
The salt concentration of the Dead Sea is almost 33 percent (Mediterranean Sea 3%): The drying out of the Dead Sea causes the salt concentration to increase, which damages the micro-organisms in the Dead Sea.
Prachensky tries an alternative next to the new route, with a horizontal pressure tunnel. By means of a pressure tube close to the surface, the Mediterranean sea water is led from Tel Aviv via Jerusalem and on to the Dead Sea. At the highest point, a water reservoir is planned. (for service and drinking water and for generating power). This means increasing the difference in the sea level by 300 m to ca. 1220 m, which could be used for power generation during certain times of the day.
This is the concept of a combined water pump/storage power plant, which is successfully employed in the Alps.
The Dead Sea has no runoff; it is a 600 km² large hyersaline lake. It is fed by the Jordan river and it current sea level ca. 420 m lover than that of the Mediterranean Sea. The objective is to balance the sea level of the Dead Sea at an appropriate level. This level should and must be defined by integrating ecological considerations.
A similar project is proposed for the Sea of Galilee, whose level is 210 m lower than the current sea level of the Mediterranean Sea.
Recordings of the sea level since 1930 show that the evaporation rate at the Dead Sea has increased particularly strongly from 1980 onwards. Immediate action is necessary.
The alternative route from Tel Aviv via Jerusalem to the Dead Sea is not only a technical, but also a symbolic proposal. For me it is a "Peace Project" between Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Syria. "Water is the basis of life" we all want peace I want to see it. (Christmas 2006).
The mostly manmade - catastrophe of the Aral Sees should serve as a warning.
- no more sea
- no more ports
- no more ships
- no more fishing
- impoverished people
salty, steppe areas, a devastated cultural and natural landscape
The Bosporus Strait and the Dardanelles with the Black Sea are ecologically sensitive areas the Danube etc. flowing into the Black Sea and the other rivers feeding into the Mediterranean, like the Nile, Rhone, Po, etc., alone cannot compensate the amount of water that evaporates. In order to maintain the standard sea level, water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean via the Strait of Gibraltar is necessary.
A lock between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean will not be necessary. Here, we propose to build an ecological research station.
The Black Sea is an inland sea with a relatively low salt concentration on the surface. It gets its water mostly from the European Rivers, predominantly from the Danube. The water in the Black Sea is salty only because the water through the Bosporus flows in two directions at the surface, lighter water flows in the direction of the Bosporus, with a salt concentration of ca. 2% and a flow rate of up to 2.50 m/sec. Deeper down, heavier salt water with a 4% salt concentration flows back into the Black Sea. The water flow from the Black sea into the Mediterranean via the Bosporus amounts to approximately 348 km³ per year. 245 km³ are lost in the Black Sea through evaporation! Today, this is additionally balanced by water flowing into the Mediterranean via Gibraltar.
The pollution of the Black Sea has to be investigated and counter-measures must be taken:
- With the Danube as the main tributary it has become a European problem.
- Waste from 17 countries is dumped into the Black Sea.
- Almost tow thirds of the nitrogen and phosphor in the sea water stem from the Danube basin.
- More than 10 million people dump effluent into the Black Sea.
- During oil transports on the Danube, every year 111,000 tons of oil leak into the Black Sea.
Here immediate measures are necessary to repair the Black Sea and the Mediterranean together with the Danube delta.
From its source the Danube flows along the following European states:
Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Rumania!!
A EU project.
In addition to the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov has to be considered. It has a size of 38 800 km³ and its largest depth is 15 meters.
This means an uninterrupted sea level from the Sea of Azov via the "Strait of Kerch" to the Mediterranean Sea.
The weather satellite Jason-2 will be launched in 2008 among other things, it will provide even more precise date about the rise of the sea level.
The problems of the close-by Caspian Sea with its rising sea level clearly show the enormous damage in the coastal areas.
Insurance companies (e.g. Münchner Rückversicherung) occupy themselves with the effects of climate change. The proposal to balance the sea level of the Mediterranean at the standard level should have enormously positive results on insurance premiums.
Floods and storms are on the increase worldwide the solution to the Mediterranean problem would at least mean a partial success.
Insurance companies should support this project. The length of the Mediterranean seacoast amounts to ca. 50.000 km, of the Black Sea 3.440 km, the Sea of Marmara 1000 km (in sum approximately 54,440 km). The damage to be expected will be billions of euros:
buildings, traffic infrastructure (streets, railway nets, sea ports, airports)
energy infrastructure, coastal protection structures
fishery, forestry, agriculture, tourism (hotels, sand and flat beaches), transport
mortality, spreading diseases, refugees, migration, loss of land and cultural monuments (e.g. World Heritage Site Venice)
performance of the coastal ecosystem, biodiversity, damage to the ground water, upset balance between sweet and salt water.
The key to all of these considerations is the Strait of Gibraltar - there are different scientific investigations, but none of them deals with the sea level rise in the Mediterranean!
The project proposed here is a highly sensitive ecological project, which needs to be investigated in detail before concrete statements can be made. EU environmental impact assessments which must be integrated. Because of the global climate change, the author would like to specifically stress the need to consider ecological advantages and disadvantages in the Mediterranean. Balancing technical requirements and ecological needs, i.e. through eco locks in the dam area, are an absolute must.
We are talking about ca. 54,500 km of coastal areas compared to the length of the proposed Gibraltar Dam of 14.50 km.
The key to all of these considerations is the Strait of Gibraltar - there are different scientific investigations, but none of them deals with the sea level rise in the Mediterranean!
The project proposed here is a highly sensitive ecological project, which needs to be investigated in detail before concrete statements can be made. EU environmental impact assessments which must be integrated. Because of the global climate change, the author would like to specifically stress the need to consider ecological advantages and disadvantages in the Mediterranean. Balancing technical requirements and ecological needs, i.e. through eco locks in the dam area, are an absolute must.
We are talking about ca. 54,500 km of coastal areas compared to the length of the proposed Gibraltar Dam of 14.50 km.
The following basic requirements should apply:
Studies. etc. a long list indeed
- definition of protection areas
- cleaning of the rivers feeding into the Mediterranean - Danube, Po, Nil, Rhone etc.
- building of more waste water treatment plants along the coastal areas
- Mediterranean Sea management - fishery, water quality, water removal
- etc. a long list indeed
- Prof. Joachim Schellnhuber
- Prof. Stefan Rahmstorf - Potsdam Institut für Klimafolgenforschung
- R. Johnson USA Geologe
- Nicholas Stern - Report Review on the Economics of Climate
- Prof. Hans Jürgen Brumsack, Birgit Warning, Rolf, Wehausen, ICBM Göttingen-Klima und Umwelt im Mittelmeer
- Jessica Giaocelli, Wasserhaushalt des Mittelmeers
- Peter Brandt- Interne Wellen in den Straßen von Gibraltar
- Burkhard Baschek 1998- Strömungsuntersuchung Gibraltar- Diplomarbeit UNI Kiel
- Prof. Michael Kuhn- Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik- Gletscherforschung - UNI Innsbruck
- BOKU Wien- Prof. Dr. Helga Kromp-Kolb
- Alfred Wegener-Institut für Polar und Meeresforschung Bremerhafen
- Jakob Hauser- Meeresströmung DIS UNI Kiel
- Alfred Goldschmid - Meeresbiologe - RSEC Forum
- RIGI (Römisches International Globus Instituts)
- IPPC (Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change) Sachstandsbericht AR4 2007
- IPPC Chairman - Dr. Rarendra Pachauri
- Green Peace- Forschungsergebnisse
- WWF- Hintergrund- Forum- Information
Venice the World Heritage Site must not die the MOSE Project is already outdated
Save the Mediterranean Sea
Open the controlled EU gates to Africa!
"Nuevo Atlantis" has become a European, African, and Asian Project. The sea level of the Mediterranean will be maintained. The objective is to generate a sustainable benefit for our "eco generation" in times of climate warming.
Save Venice, Save the Mediterranean Coasts
Already the first feasibility studies show positive economic results.
The calculations of income from toll fees, dam usage, and power generation, etc. already show interesting results.
We propose a joint-stock company, shares of which could be held by the United Nations, the neighboring countries of the Mediterranean Sea, the EU, the European Council, institutions for regional development, the World Bank plus private investors from all continents.
"Morocco" and "Spain" are the bridgeheads of the Gibraltar "Nuevo Atlantis" Dam.
Currently, different tasks and presentations are being prepared. A traveling exhibition around the Mediterranean Sea and an international TV production are being prepared.
A project company for conducting a detailed feasibility study (PPP model) is being founded businesses, planners and scientists are very interested in the project, and a number of influential people support it.
In July 2007, the IAHR Conference will be held in Venice the MOSE Project will be the focus.
In the opinion of UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon, climate change has become a threat to mankind tantamount to war. So far, the main work of the UN has concentrated on preventing and ending wars, but in the meantime, the danger through global warming has become equally large, said Ban in New York. He announced that the UN would focus on the topic intensively: "The UN are the natural arena."
In 2007 a world climate summit will be organized by the UN under UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon in Morocco a chance for this project.
"Save Venice Save the Mediterranean Sea"
The traveling exhibition "Save Venice save the Mediterranean Sea" should start in Venice and lead along the entire Mediterranean coast.
Venice, the World Heritage Site, will be kept intact - the mayor of Venice, Massimo Cacciari, could have found the EU alternative to the MOSE Project.
In a next step, the Black Sea should be integrated as well. The problems are the same (Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, and Rumania).
I would be particularly pleased, if it could also be shown to the United Nations in New York, in Brussels, in Innsbruck (Tirol -Venetia Agreement) and in Innsbruck's partner city New Orleans. (New Orleans was devastated by flooding.)
The EXPO 2008 in Zaragoza, focuses on the topic of water and sustainable developments Because of climate change, the "Nuevo Atlantis" Project is the most urgent topic in the Mediterranean area.
Originally, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Aida" was written for the opening of the Suez Canal 1869. With a slight delay, it had its simultaneous premiere in Cairo and Milan in 1871. It was a large wish at the time that both works be finished at the same time.
Today this could be paralleled by "Nuevo Atlantis" and "Save Venice".
Project concept Architect DI Michael Prachensky
and copyright of "Save Venice"
published on the Internet since 1 November 2006
Supplemented with IPPC Data - AR4 Report on 1 February 2007
Please direct inquiries to:
Architect DI Michael Prachensky
Atelier für Innovation, Architektur und Kunst
Panoramaweg 560 | A-6100 Seefeld
Tel: +43.5212.5191 | Fax: +43.5212.5191-16
00 Der Mittelmeerraum - Einführung
01 Italien fürchtet um Küsten - 3500 km Strände in Gefahr.
02 Seperation of a midlevel density current from bottom of a continental slope - UNI Florida M.S. Stern 1998
Avoiding Dangerous Climate change Hanns Joachim Schellnhuber Cambridge University 2006
03 Influence of mediterranean Outflow on Climate- Stefan Rahmstorf - Potsdam Institute for Climate 1968
04 Das Mittelmeer - Ein Ozean in Kleinformat - RSEC Forum Vorstand - Dr. Robert Hofrichter
05 Strömungsuntersuchung in der Straße von Gibraltar UNI Kiel DA 1998 Burkhard Baschek 1998
06 Wirbelbildung im Bereich des Mittelmeerausstroms - UNI Kiel DIS 2001 Janko Hauser
07 Damm bei Gibraltar ist unnötig - Stefan Rahmstorf Potsdam Institut 2005
08 The economics of climate change- Nicholas Stern - UK 2006
09 Eine aktualisierte neue Eisalter Vorhersage - R.G. Johnson UNI Minnesota
10 Interne Wellen in den Straßen von Gibraltar...Peter Brandt -1996 - DIS UNI Hamburg
Anstieg des meeresspiegel - Dichte - Lucinda Spokes - UNI East Anglia UK
11 Die Klima- und Umweltgeschichte des Mittelmeeres UNI Oldenburg 2000 - Rolf Wehausen, Birgit Warning, Hans Jürgen Brumsack
12 Schon ein Meter Meeresspiegelerhöhung gefährden Venedig
Prognosen über 13 Meter Meeresspiegelerhöhung - Wolf von Fabelk (SFV) 21.4.2007
13 Auswirkungen des Klimawandels in den Alpen- Michael Kuhn UNI Innsbruck 2002
14 Küstenökosystem des Mittelmeers- Meeresspiegelanstieg PGM Michael Brückner
15 Der Wasserhaushalt des Mittelmeeres - Jessica Gianocelli
16 Regionales Flussmanagement Nil Delta - UNI Kiel 2003 - Anna Katharina Falke
17 Über Brücken- Gibraltar - Chuck Seim - zdf 2004
Gibraltar Strait Super Dam - Richard Brook Catheart 1998 - USA
Project for Europe - Africa permanent link throu the Street of Gibraltar 1999 - 2001 UN Report
18 The Gibraltar Strait tunnel - Jose`Mari`a Pliego DG SECEG 20005
19 Solare Kraftwerke- FVS Forschungs Verbund Sonnen-energie 2002
20 studio per salvare venezia - Ermenegildo Massimo - 1994
20B - Lagunenökologie am Beispiel Venedig UNI Kassel
21 senza MOSE si puo - alternative per salvare venezia
22 IPCC-AR4- summary for plicemakers- 5.2.2007
--IPCC-ARE4 - Erläuterungen 5.2.2007
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report 6.4.2007
23 Tiedeenergie- Meeresströmungsenergie- K.Graw-UNI Leipzig 2001
24 Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf die Versicherungswirtschaft und Grenzen der Versicherbarkeit
25 Klimawandel dringt ins Bewußtsein - EU Position - zdf erde&klima
Das Marmarameer - DIS. FU-Berlin
26 Beispiel Meeresspiegelerhöhung - Kaspisches Meer - DIS -Yaghowb Peyvastehgar - UNI Dortmund 2001
26B Tsunami im Mittelmeer ? Wissen - Bildung - BR 2006
26C Meeresspiegelanstieg - Klimafolgekosten - Potsdam Institut - Dr. Manfred Stock 2006
27 WBGU Sondergutachten 2006- u.a. K. Lambeck - Meeresspiegelanstieg, Hurrikane, Gefährdung der Küsten
27B Küsten- sensible Geo- und Ökosysteme unter zunehmenden Stress. Hemut Brückner PGM 144 /1999/2000
28 Einarbeiten in die UVP - EU Richtlinien
Die versinkende Lagunenstadt- Presse - der Spiegel 27.4.2007
29 Bürgermeister von Venedig - Msr. Dr. Massimo Cacciari - langjähriger Kritiker vom Projekt MOSE